Latest Decisions

  • Added on: 30 November 2018

    Case no. LF-2013-168054 |HC/E/NO 1402

    Languages
    Full text download EN
    Summary available in EN
    Grounds

    Grave Risk - Art. 13(1)(b) | Objections of the Child to a Return - Art. 13(2) | Human Rights - Art. 20

    Order

    Return ordered

    Article(s)

    13(1)(b) 13(2) 20

    Synopsis

    2 children wrongfully removed at ages 11 and 13 – Nationals of Portugal –divorced parents  – Father national of Portugal – Mother national of Portugal – Custody rights disputed – Children lived in Portugal until January 2013  – Application for return filed with the Central Authority of Portugal in April 2013 – Return ordered – Main issues: Article 13(1)(b) – Grave risk of harm – even though the children did not seem to have a good relationship with their father there was not found to be a serious risk of harm should they return to Portugal and the exception did not apply; Article 13 – Child’s objections - the children’s opinions primarily had to be regarded as a desire to live with their mother, rather than as resistance to returning to Portugal and so the exception did not apply; Article 20 – Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms – the court held that it was consistent with human rights for the children to be returned and that the exception did not apply.

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  • Added on: 30 November 2018 |Appellate Court

    Case no. LF-2013-53377|NORWAY |HC/E/NO 1401

    Languages
    Full text download EN
    Summary available in EN
    Grounds

    Habitual Residence - Art. 3

    Order

    Return refused

    Article(s)

    3

    Synopsis

    1 child allegedly wrongfully removed at age 4 – National of Poland – Married parents – Father national of Poland – Mother national of Poland – Parents exercised joint rights of custody – Child lived in Norway until June 2012 and then Poland until December 2012 – Application for return filed with the Central Authority of Norway in December 2012 –Return refused – Main issue: Article 3 – habitual residence – the child was habitually resident in Norway and so the return to Norway from Poland did not constitute an unlawful removal.

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  • Added on: 30 November 2018 |Appellate Court

    Case no. LB-2015-76479|NORWAY |HC/E/NO 1400

    Languages
    Full text download EN
    Summary available in EN
    Grounds

    Rights of Custody - Art. 3 | Grave Risk - Art. 13(1)(b) | Objections of the Child to a Return - Art. 13(2) | Settlement of the Child - Art. 12(2)

    Order

    Appeal allowed, return ordered

    Article(s)

    3 13(1)(b) 13(2)

    Synopsis

    1 child wrongfully removed at age 7 – National of Poland –unmarried parents– Father national of Poland – Mother national of Poland – Disputed custody rights– Child lived in Poland until August 2014 – Application for return filed with the Central Authority of Poland in September 2014 – Return ordered – Main issues: Article 3 – Rights of custody –  the father had limited custody rights but these extended to the right to decide the child’s habitual residence and therefore the father had rights of custody within the meaning of the Convention; Article 13(1)(b) – Grave risk of harm - there were no grounds for concluding that return would be “clearly unfavourable to the child” or that he would most likely suffer harm if returned. Therefore the exception did not apply; Article 13 – Child’s objections - the fact that the child  said he wanted to live with his mother  was not a ground for concluding that the child was opposed to returning to Poland, therefore the exception did not apply.

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  • Added on: 30 November 2018 |Appellate Court

    Case no. LB-2012-106154|NORWAY |HC/E/NO 1399

    Languages
    Full text download EN
    Summary available in EN
    Grounds

    Habitual Residence - Art. 3

    Order

    Return refused

    Article(s)

    3

    Synopsis

    1 child allegedly wrongfully retained at age 2 – National of Norway and USA – Married parents– Father national of USA – Mother national of Norway – Parents exercised joint rights of custody – Child lived in USA until 2010 – Application for return filed with the Central Authority of Norway in December 2011 –Return refused – Main issue: Article 3 – The father had consented to the change of habitual residence of the child

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  • Added on: 30 November 2018 |Appellate Court

    Case no. LB-2007-127164|NORWAY |HC/E/NO 1398

    Languages
    Full text download EN
    Summary available in EN
    Grounds

    Grave Risk - Art. 13(1)(b)

    Order

    Return ordered

    Article(s)

    13(1)(b)

    Synopsis

    1 child wrongfully removed at age 6 – National of the United Kingdom and Norway – Married parents– Father national of the United Kingdom – Mother national of Norway –  Parents exercised joint rights of custody – Child lived in the United Kingdom until 5 June 2007 – Application for return filed with the Central Authority of Norway on 25 June 2017– Return ordered – Main issue(s): Article 13(1)(b) – the exception was not met, the risk must be serious and must relate to harm or an intolerable situation for the child. Although harm to the child’s next-of-kin may also entail a risk of the child being harmed psychologically but the risk was not sufficiently serious in this case.

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  • Added on: 2 November 2018 |Superior Appellate Court

    Hague return case from Ukraine to the United Kingdom No 2-4237/12 |HC/E/UA 1397

    Languages
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    Summary available in EN
    Grounds

    Aims of the Convention - Preamble, Arts 1 and 2 | Habitual Residence - Art. 3 | Removal and Retention - Arts 3 and 12 | Jurisdiction Issues - Art. 16 | European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR)

    Order

    Return ordered

    Article(s)

    2 3 5 8 12 13(1)(a) 13(1)(b) 16 19 20 12(1)

    Synopsis

    1 child wrongfully retained at age 6 months - National of United Kingdom and Ukraine - Married parents- Father national of the United Kingdom - Mother national of Ukraine – Applicant father had joint custody with respondent mother under British legislation – Child lived in the United Kingdom until 11 April 2012 -Application for return filed with the courts of Ukraine on 19 December 2012 - Return ordered on 29 August 2018 - Main issues: Articles 5 and 12 of the 1980 Hague Child Abduction Convention (a parent cannot independently decide to change the child’s place of habitual residence; the place of habitual residence is of major importance to restoring of the status quo for the child; first instance court and appeal court incorrectly interpreted exceptions for non-return of a child as a settlement in new environment, acquiescence in the retention and grave risk to return).

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  • Added on: 24 September 2018 |First Instance

    Municipal Court of Rijeka, No. R1Ob-649/16 of 16 June 2017|CROATIA |HC/E/HR 1396

    Languages
    No full text available
    Summary available in EN
    Grounds

    Grave Risk - Art. 13(1)(b) | Undertakings | Objections of the Child to a Return - Art. 13(2)

    Order

    Return ordered

    Article(s)

    3 12 13(1)(b) 16

    Synopsis

    1 child wrongfully retained at age 5 – National of Croatia and Germany – Married parents – Father national of Croatia and Germany – Mother national of Croatia – Joint costudy according to the German Civil Code – Child lived in Germany until December 2015 – Application for return filed with the Central Authority of Croatia on 22 March 2016 – Application for return filed with the courts of Croatia on 30 May 2016 – Return ordered – Main issues: Art. 13(1)(b) grave risk exception to return, Undertakings, Objections of the Child to a Return – The Court ordered the return of the child, whose retention in Croatia was found to be unlawful under Art. 3 of the 1980 Hague Child Abduction Convention.

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  • Added on: 24 September 2018 |Appellate Court

    County Court of Zagreb, No. 1 Gž Ob-1456/2016-2 of 2 December 2016|CROATIA |HC/E/HR 1395

    Languages
    No full text available
    Summary available in EN
    Grounds

    Grave Risk - Art. 13(1)(b) | Procedural Matters | Brussels IIa Regulation (Council Regulation (EC) No 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003)

    Order

    Case remitted to lower court

    Article(s)

    12 13(1)(b)

    Synopsis

    1 child wrongfully removed at age 3 – National of Croatia– Married parents– Father national of Croatia– Mother national of Croatia – Joint parental responsibility according to German Civil Code – Child lived in Germany until 6 April 2016 – Application for return filed with the Central Authority of Croatia on 10 June 2016 – Application for return filed with the Central court of Croatia on 29 August 2016 - Main issue(s): Art. 13(1)(b) grave risk exception to return; Procedural matters, Brussels IIa Regulation – the courts are obliged to give a fully-founded factual basis for the application of Articles 12 and 13 of the Hague Convention.

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  • Added on: 24 September 2018 |First Instance

    Municipal Court of Osijek, No. 12 R1 Ob-566 of 3 October 2016|CROATIA |HC/E/HR 1394

    Languages
    No full text available
    Summary available in EN
    Grounds

    Rights of Custody - Art. 3 | Undertakings | Grave Risk - Art. 13(1)(b) | Objections of the Child to a Return - Art. 13(2) | Procedural Matters

    Order

    Return ordered

    Article(s)

    3 13(1)(b) 13(2)

    Synopsis

    1 child wrongfully removed at age 3 – National of Croatia – Married parents– Father national of Croatia – Mother national of Croatia – Joint parental responsibility under the  German Civil Code – Child lived in Germany until 6 April 2016 – Application for return filed with the Central Authority of Croatia on 10 June 2016 – Application for return filed with the courts of Croatia on 29 August 2016 – Return ordered – Main issues:  Rights of Custody, Art. 13(1)(b) “grave risk” exception to return, Objections of the Child to a Return – The child’s removal from Germany to Croatia was held to be unlawful under the Hague Convention, and none of the exceptions to ordering return were deemed applicable.

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  • Added on: 24 September 2018 |Appellate Court

    County Court of Zagreb, No. 15 Gž Ob-1264 / 16-2 of 11 October 2016|CROATIA |HC/E/HR 1393

    Languages
    No full text available
    Summary available in EN
    Grounds

    Brussels IIa Regulation (Council Regulation (EC) No 2201/2003 of 27 November 2003)

    Order

    Case remitted to lower court

    Article(s)

    3 12 13(1)(b)

    Synopsis

    1 child wrongfully retained at age 5 – National of Croatia and Germany – Married parents– Father national of Croatia and Germany – Mother national of Croatia – Joint custody according to the German Civil Code and under Croatian law – Child lived in Germany until December2015 – Application for return filed with the Central Authority of Croatia on 22 March 2016 – Application for return filed with the courts of Croatia on 30 May 2016 - The Court granted the appeal, set aside the first instance judgment and remitted the case for a new trial to the court of first instance – Main issues: Rights of Custody, Brussels IIa Regulation –The first instance court should have applied the Brussels II a Regulation, including its requirement for return to be ordered in Art. 13(1)(b) cases in which it has been established that adequate arrangements have been made to secure the protection of the child upon his return.

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